How Good are those Young-Earth Arguments: Radiocarbon Dating
"Diamonds & Rust" is a song written, composed, and performed by Joan Baez. It was written in Canada Adult Contemporary (RPM), Canada Top Singles ( RPM), US Adult Contemporary (Billboard), 5. US Billboard Hot , Main · Videos; C 14 dating diamonds and rust. It rigidly portions nothing to nuke vice “tailbone wherewith the city” wherewith the sec ins stress next cougars. A Close Look at List of Young-Earth Arguments from Kent Hovind ('Dr. Dino') and Other Claims: Carbon dating.
C14 dating diamonds and rust
Gold is also an element, in and of itself. Its symbol is Au. It does not easily form compounds so it is found by itself, in stream beds placer deposits or in veins in rocks. Rust is a compound: It is found all over; everywhere iron and oxygen come in contact!
Both iron and oxygen form compounds quite easily, so they are not readily found alone. The oxygen you breathe is O2, not elemental oxygen. Rust can come in different forms, because iron symbol Fe normally gives up 2 or 3 electrons when it forms compounds. We call these "oxidation states.
To make a neutral compound it must then bond with some element in the proper ratio so as to remove its"excess" positive charge or, replace its deficit negative charge. Oxygen symbol O normally takes 2 electrons when bonding with metals including hydrogen. So, for a balanced compound of iron oxide, you have either FeO or Fe2O3. Here's what I mean: This compound is also called Iron II Oxide. It is one form of rust. The charges balance like this: I hope this helps.
Diamond is a polymorph of the element carbon C. To give you an idea of the many uses of carbon, the macromolecules in our bodies, including DNA,proteins,sugars, and lipids, all contain carbon. Also, the soft lead in your pencil,graphite, is also made up of carbon.
The element in gold is of course, gold Au. The most pure form of gold jewelry as you probably know is 24 karats meaning no other elements are present within the stone. Common impurities in lower karat gold include silver Agcopper Cuand palladium Pd. Rust is iron-oxide consisting of the elements iron and oxygen. When water touches an iron surface the water starts reacting with carbon dioxide in the air and forms carbonic acid, a weak acid. The presence of the acid causes the iron to dissolve.
At the same time, the water starts breaking apart into oxygen and hydrogen. The oxygen from the breakdown of water reacts with the dissolved iron forming iron oxide, rust. GOLD Gold is an element, meaning that it consists only of one type of atom that cannot be chemically broken down into smaller parts.
Diamonds were discovered in southern Africa inwhen a 20 ct stone was picked up off the ground by a child. Soon after, the primary deposits of diamond were found in the vicinity of Kimberley, which gave its name to kimberlite.
Diamonds & Rust (song)
Although these deposits do not produce the majority of diamonds, they are impressive and famous for the scale and intensity of mining. Fresh kimberlite is also called blue earth. Weathered, it becomes yellow earth, from which the diamonds are easily separated.
If they were not so valuable, they would be totally neglected. The Kimberley pipes are Cretaceous in age, among the youngest known. The blue earth was mined originally in open pits, but then underground as the workings became deeper. At one time, the blue earth was allowed to weather so it was easier to crush and sort, but now the blue earth is processed at once, saving the cost of the inventory lying in the sun.
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The crushed blue earth is washed to separate the lighter gangue. Then the residue is greased, or allowed to move down a trough coated with petroleum jelly, to which the diamonds adhere much more strongly than the gangue does. This process was introduced in Then the greasy diamonds are cleaned, removing the petroleum jelly and leaving the product to be graded.
For many years, South Africa had a near-monopoly of diamonds, because of the scale of their operations. However, recent discoveries have pushed South Africa out of the limelight. The Congo deposits are in part due to a Triassic pipe at Bakwanga, whose erosion left diamonds in the Karroo gravels.
Botswana is now a larger diamond producer than South Africa. InDevonian kimberlite pipes were found at Zarnitsa, in the Yakut A. These deposits, which include gem-grade diamonds, have made Russia one of the largest diamond producers. Probably the most significant new discovery came in in far northern Western Australia, at the Argyle mines in the far northeastern corner near Wyndham, and at Ellendale near Fitzroy Crossing.
Exploration began in after 9 diamonds were found in the Leonard River. Full scale exploitation began in December The mainly eclogitic diamonds are in lamproite, and include rare and valuable pink diamonds. There has been some effort to sell the brown diamonds by giving them attractive names. Near Murfreesboro, Arkansas, J.
Huddleston picked up some diamonds in Prairie Creek in One was cut to a 3. The largest found, inwas the Uncle Sam, 40 ct, referenced above. This was never a commercial mine, and is now a state park, where you can pan for diamonds for a small fee.
The source of the Punch Jones diamond found in West Virginia seems to be unknown, and no more have turned up. Kimberlite or lamproite pipes from late Proterozoic to early Devonian have been found in metamorphosed sediments and volcanic rocks of early Proterozoic age in the State Line field between Laramie, Wyoming and Ft.
Collins, Colorado, and in the Iron Mountain field northeast of Laramie. At least 40 diatremes have been located. The search for these began inand a Serious mining was supposed to have begun in Some time ago, a diamond was found in glacial till in Wisconsin, that had been carried south by Pleistocene continental glaciers from somewhere in Canada. In some diamonds, or diamond indicators, had been found in the MacKenzie River, so there was some prospecting by large diamond-mining concerns, but nothing was found, and they sold out to one of their contractors, Chuck Fipke.
Fipke finally found what he knew was there inunder Lac de Gras, miles northeast of Yellowknife. Full operation began in Octoberand Canada became a major player in the diamond game. At Diavik, 41 kimberlite pipes were found, 13 of which contained diamonds, and 4 were rich. The indicators of diamond are minerals that are normally quite rare at the suface, including garnet, chromite, ilmenite, clinopyroxene, olivine and zircon.
The last is the most persistent in sands, and is an excellent indicator that there are kimberlite pipes upstream. Most of these minerals are deeply colored, like red garnet, black chromite, and green clinopyroxene and olivine, and so are easily picked out.
They contrast greatly with the usual silica, mica and feldspar. Brazil also has several diamond regions, but has not made as great an impact on diamond production. The Dachine greenstone belt is the remains of the roots of a Proterozoic island arc, where there was once subduction, and the schists were made by the metamorphosis of volcanic material in the Amazonian orogeny perhaps when South America collided with North America in the Ordovician.
This rock, now exposed by erosion, contains only small diamonds. Graphite The name graphite comes from the Greek grapho, "I write" by allusion to its use in pencils. Graphite indeed leaves a black mark, but it is too soft unless mixed with clay, pressed into thin rods and consolidated by heat. These are called "leads" because soft lead leaves a similar but not so good dark mark. The word plumbago for graphite alludes specifically to lead.
In ancient times it was probably regarded as yet another form of lead, a more concentrated plumbum nigrum. Graphite pencils do not seem to have been used at all commonly in the ancient world. A stylus on hard wax, or ink on papyrus, were sufficient for most purposes. Graphite is an allotropic form of carbon, as different from diamond as could be imagined, except for one thing.
It, too, is formed by covalent bonding of carbon atoms, and is just as resistant to chemical attack as diamond, and laughs equally well at high temperatures. Most of the time when carbon is reduced to an element, it associates as some form of graphite, though usually not as obviously crystalline graphite. These other forms are often called amorphous graphite, which is good enough for engineers, but all such material is crystalline on a small scale.
Graphite is the reason it is so hard to make diamond. Carbon would much rather be graphite under normal conditions. It is more stable than diamond, but diamond never alters to graphite. A carbon atom is located at each vertex of a hexagon, and each line joining two vertices represents a single bond with two electrons.
These bonds are 0. Each circle represents two delocalized electrons that distribute themselves evenly around the hexagon. The delocalized electrons are responsible for the great stability of graphite. Each sheet of hexagons is a separate molecule, a natural colloid that is all surface. The sheets are held together by van der Waals forces that are much weaker than the covalent bonds.
The fluctuating charges in one sheet induce opposite charges in the other sheet, so the sheets attract. Heat and electricity flow easily in a sheet, with difficulty normal to the sheets. The resistivity normal to the sheets is 10, times the resistivity in a sheet.
A sheet can stick to another plane surface, as well as adsorb molecules and exhibit all the usual surface phenomena.
The uses of graphite as a lubricant and as an adsorbent depend on its surface. The remaining electrons are in a pz orbital, half above the plane, half below. These orbitals overlap to form the circular orbitals above and below the plane that accommodate the delocalized electrons to give graphite considerable "resonance" energy.
Although diamond is a semiconductor, graphite is classed as a semimetal. Therefore, there are always mobile electrons in its conduction band, and mobile holes in its valence band, at nonzero temperature.
These charge carriers are not responsible for its bonding, as in a metal. They are, however, responsible for the semimetallic lustre of graphite. The black of graphite is due to its fine division, usually colloidal, which absorbs light effectively.
One way to make a colloidal graphite is to burn things that make a smoky flame, like resins, and to catch the soot on a cool surface. The soot is called lampblack.
In Latin, this material was called fuligo, fuliginis, and was used to make black paints and the important substance atramentum librarium, or ink. To make ink, you ground fuliginem in a mortar with some gum, gummi, perhaps from the acacia, and a little water.
The colloidal graphite was then peptized by the gum, forming a stable sol that was the ink. This recipe was discovered in Egypt when writing on paper was invented, and is now known as India ink. The formula is given in Vitruvius. Ink, paper and writing all came to the west from Egypt. Ink was also discovered in China, where gelatin was used instead of gum. Writing in a different fashion also came from China, with paper made from textile fibres.
This excellent ink is still used today in drafting, a survival of a very ancient technique. Graphite is found in nature in three forms, known in the trade as crystalline flake, crystalline lump, and amorphous lump.
Crystalline flake graphite occurs as flakes in the metamorphic rock mica schist. The world's best deposit is in Madagascar, though it is widespread. This is some of the most desirable graphite in trade, called "crucible grade" and also used in lubricants, where all abrasive impurities must be absent. A primary use of graphite is in making refractory crucibles and other objects that must stand extreme heat. Graphite vanes were used to steer the V-2 rockets in world war II.
Crystalline lump occurs in veins associated with intrusive pegmatites in Ceylon. The graphite veins radiate from the pegmatite inclusion. The source of the graphite is probably the reduction of the common volcanic gas carbon dioxide. Amorphous lump graphite is produced by the alteration of coal by nearby granite intrusions, which cooks out the volatile ingredients in a kind of natural coke oven.
In fact, there is a continuous progression through anthracite coal to graphite. The structure of coal is different from that of graphite, however. These graphites can be used to add carbon to steel, and other uses that do not require high purity. The largest veins of amorphous graphite are in Sonora, Mexico, bedded in a triassic sandstone. These were indubitably coal deposits cooked by nearby intrusions. Similar deposits occur in Korea, which supplies most of the world's lump graphite.
New Mexico and Rhode Island also have vein graphite deposits. Dr Acheson found how to make good graphite in an electric furnace. It seems to be competitive with natural graphite, and is generally purer.
Graphite can be peptized by tannin to make an aqueous sol called aquadag, and a dispersion in oil called oildag.
The "dag" syllable seems to be a term for deflocculated graphite, a product of the same company. Aquadag can be used to deposit a conducting graphite layer on the interior of a cathode-ray tube to complete the electron circuit.Joan Baez Diamonds and Rust Intro Lesson
Graphite is used for the cathode in ammonium-zinc and alkaline electrical cells because of its inertness and conductivity, and as carbon arc electrodes because of its high sublimation temperature. Graphite is a good lubricant when in fine flakes, even when dry. This is not because the graphite layers slide easily on each other, because they do not, but stick persistently. When a layer has adsorbed neutral molecules on both sides, however, it does become slippery.
It tends to plate metal surfaces, so it does not rub off. Carbon black is the colloidal graphite used in rubber products, and is identical to lampblack. It is usually made by burning methane in limited air. Rubber is very susceptible to abrasive wear, and tires would last a very short time unless the rubber were mixed with large quantities of carbon black, which gives it wear resistance.
A chemical reaction is probably involved, part of the vulcanization process. The general black color of rubber products is evidence of the use of carbon black. Pure rubber is a pasty whitish color. Thomas Edison found that the resistance of carbon granules depended on the pressure to which they were subjected.
By connecting an acoustic diaphragm mechanically to a button of carbon granules, the resistance could be made to vary in accordance to the acoustic pressure, so that when a current was passed through the button an amplified replica of the acoustic signal was produced. This gave a much stronger signal than the Bell type of metallic diaphragm, permanent-magnet microphone, and made long-distance telephony possible.
Edison, as is well-known, also used carbon filaments in the first incandescent lamps. The search for the best material to carbonize is a fascinating story. Bamboo fibres turned out to be the best. Carbon paper is another useful invention largely ignored today though carbon paper can still be purchased.
It uses a film of carbon black on thin paper for the purpose of making multiple copies simultaneously by being struck with a type head of a typewriter, or embossed with a stylus held in the hand.
An early use was making multiple copies all at one time of telegraphic railway train orders, messages that had to be precisely correct, so they were guaranteed to be identical. In the business world, a typist could make a file copy at the same time as the original letter, or make a copy for another recipient.
There had been ways of making multiple copies before carbon paper, but carbon paper was far superior to them.
Black powder is black because it contains graphite from charcoal. Gunpowder is made from potassium nitrate, charcoal and sulphur very intimately mixed by grinding when wet. This is a large subject that cannot be adequately treated here, except to say that making gunpowder is somewhat more difficult than would be guessed, and there are many tricks involved. Gunpowder actually burns very rapidly rather than exploding, and this is what is desired in a firearm.
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Gunpowder Creek in Wyoming was so-named by the Cheyennes because of the coal that crops out on its banks. Gunpowder was the only black powder that they knew. Oxides Carbon forms three oxides: Each line represents two electrons in a covalent bond; assign one electron to each atom joined by the bond. The dots represent electrons belonging to a particular atom, here the oxygens.
Then the formal charges are as shown. The center structure is nonpolar, while the outside structures are polar in opposite directions. The state for the molecule as a whole is a linear combination of the three structures.
The ability to choose the relative amounts of the structures allows the formation of a state of lowest energy. The is rather inappropriately called "resonance" in chemistry. There is no resonance involved, just the freedom to adjust the relative amounts.
The amounts of the two polar structures are equal, so the molecule is nonpolar overall. The resultant lengths of the bonds are shown at the right. The possibility of "resonance" makes these molecules especially stable.
Carbon monoxide is a very stable diatomic molecule. It is a colorless, odorless gas at STP. Its molecular weight of 28 makes it just a tad lighter than air. Banefully, it combines tightly with hemoglobin in the blood, taking it out of action and suffocating from within. For this reason, it is a deadly poison in air that is breathed.
One part in is rapidly and irreversibly fatal. One part in brings unconsciousness in 30 minutes, death in three hours.
Otherwise, it is just fine. Carbon monoxide is created when carbon is burned in a deficiency of oxygen, as in charcoal fires, internal combustion engines, poorly drafted and vented heaters and furnaces, fuel gases, and in methane explosions in coal mines.
The symptoms of inhalation of small quantities are headache and nausea. Carbon monoxide can be detected by the blackening of paper soaked in palladous chloride solution, or in smaller quantities by electronic sensors. CO is produced endogeneously in the body in the breakdown of the heme molecule when an erythrocyte's day life is over.
If it were not for a molecular adaptation in myoglobin and hemoglobin, the proteins that carry oxygen in the muscles and blood, this would make enough CO to block the globins fatally.
A free heme is 25, times as sensitive to CO as it is to O2, but the globins only times more sensitive. Carbon monoxide can be removed from internal combustion engine exhaust by adjustment of the engine, but this increases the NOx emissions, which are even more poisonous.
No hay lonche gratuito. Catalytic converters mainly catch unburned hydrocarbon fragments, and don't do much with CO and NOx. Carbon monoxide can be catalytically hydrogenated to make methanol wood alcoholwhich is a violent poison when taken internally, but nice enough otherwise, and a good solvent.
With chlorine, it forms carbonyl chloride, COCl2, also known as phosgene, a rather unsuccessful war gas, but a useful chemical intermediary in making dyes. It is a mixture of manganese dioxide with copper and cobalt oxides, and must not be exposed to the slightest amount of moisture. In coal mining, CO is called black damp, and occurred after there had been an underground fire or explosion. Canaries were used to detect it, since the birds were more sensitive than the miners to its effects.
The safety lamps of Davy and Stephenson were used to detect the presence of methane, or fire damp, by an enhanced flame without setting it off. CO also had an effect on the flame. CO2 was called choke damp, because it suffocated. The word "damp" here is cognate to German "dampf" and simply means a gas. Carbon monoxide forms complexes called carbonyls with metals, like nickel tetracarbonyl, Ni CO 4.
The carbons are tetrahedrally bound to the nickel, with the oxygens on the outside. There is "resonance" between the uncharged structure and structures with various charges on the carbon and oxygen that bind the molecule. Without "resonance" there would be no binding at all. It is formed by passing CO over warm Ni powder, then it is condensed and distilled for purity. Carbonyls are usually inflammable clear liquids easily decomposed by heat.
Its molecular weight of 44 shows that it is heavier than air. It is colorless, odorless and nonpoisonous. It does stimulate breathing, however. The critical temperature is The liquid freezes under 5. This is the triple point at which gaseous, liquid and solid can coexist. At mm CO2 pressure, dry ice sublimates at At lower pressures, the sublimation temperature is even lower. It provides pure cold, without messy liquids. It is a normal minor constituent of the atmosphere, about ppm by volume.
Nevertheless, this small amount supplies all the food in the world for all living things, and is part of a complex natural cycle. Carbon dioxide, incidentally, dissolves in rubber and diffuses through rubber faster than helium or hydrogen does. Carbon dioxide is quite soluble in water. At 1 atm, 1 litre of water dissoves 1. The equilibrium concentration in the solution is proportional to the carbon dioxide pressure.
Soda water is charged with carbon dioxide at 4 to 5 atm pressure psiwhich slowly evaporates if the solution is open to the air, more rapidly if the solution is agitated. Supersaturation is easily observed when an opened can of soda is poured into a glass, and gas is then copiously evolved.
This supersaturation is very desirable in a beverage. All rainfall is slightly acidic, even when absolutely pristine. Water in equilibrium with the usual atmospheric content of CO2 has pH 5. The carbonate ion is formed by the action of the water: This series of equilibria show that the solution contains a number of molecular constituents.
The ionization of water means that the hydroxyl ion concentration is very low. The carbonate ion has a threefold axis of symmetry, and is very stable, forming a wide variety of important salts.
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H2CO3 is called carbonic acid. Its true dissociation constant is 4. Although real enough in solution, it cannot be isolated out of water as a crystalline substance, and always exists in equilibrium with dissolved CO2. Carbonic acid seems to speed alcohol from the stomach to the blood stream, an interesting effect of carbonated drinks. The dissociation constant of bicarbonate to carbonate is 4.
At a carbon dioxide pressure of 2. Calcium carbonate is a very important carbonate, found in nature in limestones. Clear crystals are called calcite. There is also an orthorhombic variety, called aragonite. It is quite insoluble, but calcium bicarbonate, Ca HCO3 2, is not. When water that has absorbed some carbon dioxide trickles across it, the bicarbonate ions pick up some calcium from the carbonate, and wash it away in solution. This is an important weathering process that explains the weathering of limestones in a moist region along cracks and passages, producing great and small caves, underground streams, and all the wonder of Karst topography.
Karst is a limestone area in the Balkans that is an example of this. This is part of a subcycle of the great carbon cycle in which animals in the sea make shells of calcium carbonate, which becomes limestone, which is raised above sea level, which is rained upon, and which returns to the sea as bicarbonate. Water containing calcium bicarbonate is the classic "temporary" hard water, since boiling deposits the carbonate as scale.
In this case, the addition of carbonate is necessary, perhaps as washing soda, Na2CO3. Carbon dioxide in water also weathers silicates to calcium bicarbonate and silicic acid, both of which are soluble. Carbon dioxide is released when silica and calcium carbonate react in boiling water to make calcium silicate and carbon dioxide. This is the origin of the "geyserite" produced around hot springs and geysers, and is the reverse of the first reaction.
The weathering of feldspars to kaolin is one way carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere. Another is the fixing of carbon dioxide by organisms to calcium carbonate. Photosynthesis also removes carbon dioxide in large amounts, while certain bacteria use carbon dioxide in chemosynthesis. Most photosynthesis occurs in the surface layers of the ocean, it should be remembered, not by the more visible green land plants.
The ocean contains 20 to 30 times as much carbon dioxide as the atmosphere, and is dominant in the carbon dioxide cycle. All this is very difficult to estimate quantitatively. It is no wonder that computer programs may seem to give observed variations; such programs are constrained to do so. Carbon dioxide can be made by "burning" limestone. This is a classic way of making the dioxide.
CO2 is a by-product of lime burning, cement making and brewing. Lime, CaO, is "slaked" in water to form the hydroxide: Mixed with sand and water, the hydroxide forms mortar. The hydroxide first crystallizes rapidly, and the morter sets. Then it gradually reacts with the carbon dioxide in the air to return to the carbonate, and hardens even more. Carbon dioxide is also made in fermentation, when enzymes catalyze the reaction turning sugar into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.
This is the major source of industrial CO2. Yeast contains the enzyme zymase to accomplish this creditable task. Unlike methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol is a good drink that is the source of much government revenue and a boon to the human race.
Beer is an exceptionally healthy beverage that we should consume more of. The carbon dioxide industry has been well developed. It supplies liquid carbon dioxide in strong steel cylinders, and solid carbon dioxide in compressed bricks.
The liquefaction of gases was introduced by Faraday, while Thilorier discovered solid CO2 in If no other source of the gas is available, it can be made by burning coke in air. The flue gas is scrubbed over limestone chips to remove SO2 as calcium bisulfite, then the CO2 is absorbed by an alkaline solution Na2CO3, for example, called "lye" in a coke-filled tower and released in purified form by boiling the lye.
The gas is then dried and compressed, and condensed to a liquid, eliminating the nitrogen. Some sources of gas, such as fermentation, may introduce unwanted odors and impurities.
If they are overfilled, expansion of the liquid can produce dangerous stresses. Liquid carbon dioxide has had many uses. As a compact source of power, carbon dioxide can be used in place of compressed air. Before electricity was widely available, it was used to operate some railway signals in isolated locations.
Similarly, it was used to operate bell buoys for navigation. It was used in coal mining as an explosive "Cardox"by heating it in a closed cylinder until a shearing disc was ruptured and the high pressure 10, - 30, psi released fractured the coal. It was used as a safe refrigerant until displaced by Freons. Now that Freons are out of favor, it may again be used for this purpose. The greatest use of liquid carbon dioxide is in the carbonation of beverages, and in raising beer. It not only can provide the power to lift beer from the cellar to the tap, but preserves the carbonation in doing so.
Dry ice is used where other methods of refrigeration would be heavy or inconvenient, particularly in the distribution of ice cream. Carbon dioxide is found naturally as a major consitituent of volcanic gases, and in caves, mines and wells. Some oil wells in western Colorado produced an emulsion of CO2 and crude oil, and were called "ice cream wells. The CO2 in these waters helps them to dissolve minerals, hence they are "mineral" waters. The Stygian Caves in Yellowstone, and the Lachersee in Germany, also are associated with carbon dioxide.
Fatal properties of these gases are associated more with the lack of oxygen than the presence of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide plays a very important role in regulating breathing in normal concentrations. A human exhales about g of CO2 per day.
The carbon 14 gradually decays to nitrogen. The longer it has been since the living thing died, the less carbon 14 there is in the plant.
The longer the plant has been dead, the lower the ratio of carbon 14 to carbon 12 in it. They get the carbon they need to form tissues and burn as fuel by eating plants.
Since they eat plants that are still alive, or have not been dead long enough for their carbon 14 to decay, the carbon ratio in the bodies of living animals is the same as the carbon ratio in the plants they ate, which is the same as the ratio of carbon 14 to carbon 12 in the atmosphere. When the animal dies, its carbon 14 decays without being replaced. So, the ratio of carbon 14 to carbon 12 in an animal depends upon how long it has been dead, just like a plant.
All of this has nothing to do with diamonds because diamonds were never alive, and therefore never ate or breathed carbon Nobody really knows what created diamonds in the first place.