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Encyclopedia of Religion & Ethics (), v. 4 (Paperback) / Author: James Hastings ; ; Reference works, Encyclopaedias & reference works. Main · Videos; Kissing simulator mattshea dating of religion and ethics online dating james hastings encyclopedia of religion and ethics online dating. name:(Hastings, James) · Print PDF. Sorted by Title Document Date: 9/27/ . Genre: Essay. Document Notes on ''Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics''.
The Penguin Dictionary of Religions. New Schaff-Herzog encyclopedia of religious knowledge. Recent reference books in religion: A guide for students, scholars, researchers, buyers and readers. Macmillan Reference USA, Over Deities of the World.
Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America. International Dictionary of Religion: Theologische Realenzykopadie in German. Berlin and New York: Encyclopedia of millennialism and millennial movements.
Twentieth Century Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. Dictionary of the ecumenical movement. Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses, Devils and Demons. Who's who in religion. Handbook of Denominations in the United States. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Religion.
The Encyclopedia of American Religions. Gordon, Marin Baumann, David B. Religions of the world: A comprehensive encyclopedia of beliefs and practices.
Dictionary of Non-Christian Religions. World Religions from Ancient History to the Present. Dictionnaire des religions in French. Presses Universitaires de France. The Continuum dictionary of religion. Worldmark encyclopedia of religious practices. Encyclopedia of religious rites, rituals, and festivals. Die religion in geschichte und gegenwart in German.
The Religious Heritage of America. The HarperCollins dictionary of religion. Encyclopedia of world scriptures. The encyclopedia of Caribbean religions. The introduction of the arts-and-sciences type of encyclopaedia inevitably hastened the use of specialist contributors, for it widened the total subject field considerably.
The modern encyclopaedia The period of the encyclopaedic dictionary was brilliant, but it gradually became apparent that, in abandoning the systematic encyclopaedia of the earlier period in favour of the quick reference dictionary form, quite as much had been lost as had been gained. The comparatively brief entries in the encyclopaedic dictionary had, by accident of the alphabet, fragmented knowledge to such an extent that users received only a disjointed knowledge of the things in which they were interested.
Their encyclopaedia was to include about 45 principal subjects distinguished by titles printed across the whole pagesupported by another 30 lengthy articles, the whole being contained within one alphabetical sequence interspersed with numerous brief entries enhanced by references, where appropriate, to the principal subjects. Some of the principal articles, notably those on medical subjects, extended to more than pages each.
The three collaborators had thus incorporated the comprehensive treatment of important subjects accorded by the earliest form of encyclopaedias and had supplemented this with the attraction of the brief informative notices of minor topics that had been the chief feature of the encyclopaedic dictionary. The key to their success was, however, their retention of the single alphabetical sequence.
The Konversationslexikon was designed to provide the rapidly growing German bourgeoisie with the background knowledge considered essential for entry into the polite society of the day.
Encyclopædia of Religion and Ethics
Brockhaus, throughout its existence, has faithfully followed a system in which the whole of knowledge has been categorized into very specific topics. These topics are arranged alphabetically, and, under each heading, condensed entries convey the essential information.
By ingenious cross-references, entries are linked with other entries under which further information can be found, thus avoiding the inclusion of an index. There is no difficulty in distinguishing encyclopaedias of the Konversationslexikon form from encyclopaedic dictionaries.
The former are usually of considerable size Der grosse Brockhaus, —35, includedarticles by more than 1, authors and possess elaborate cross-reference schemes. Moreover, whenever a really important subject occurs, considerable space is allowed, though the same principle of concentrated text is followed. Although the Britannica and Brockhaus examples eventually became the models for 19th- and 20th-century encyclopaedias, there were many survivals from the previous periods.
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The contents comprised vividly written and profusely illustrated articles; because the system of article arrangement was obscure, much of the success of the work as a reference tool resulted from its splendidly contrived index, which remains a model of its kind. Mee later produced a completely pictorial encyclopaedia, I See All —30that comprised thousands of small illustrations, each accompanied by only a few words of text. Librarians treasured it for its reference value. In a volume devoted to reading courses and study units was added.
Annual supplements were provided from onward. In a Braille edition in volumes was issued; most of the illustrations were eliminated in this, but many of the diagrams and graphs were retained.
In a separate volume set in a special large type was published for the use of the partially blind. World War I put a halt to the idea of issuing a Britannica Junior, and the first edition of such a work was not published until One of its features was its ready-reference index volume, which combined short fact entries with indexing to longer general articles.
A yearbook supplement was added later.
Prepared specifically for children just learning to read and not yet in elementary school, it consisted of 16 volumes, in which all the illustrations were in colour and the accompanying informative text brief. After its original appearance, the set was translated into several languages, including Japanese and Korean. In Frank E. Compton sold a U. In due course, the system of continuous revision was introduced, close cooperation with educational and library advisers was fostered, and contributions from well-known authors were encouraged.
Title page of volume 1 of the edition of Compton's Pictured Encyclopedia. Each of the 12 text volumes is devoted to a broad subject field: The 13th volume was an index with ready-reference material. The contents of each volume were arranged alphabetically with cross-referencesand there were many illustrations.Trinity - Part 1 - Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics by James Hastings
Specialized encyclopaedias Special interests Most encyclopaedias have been compiled from a purely scholarly point of view and have had no particular ax to grind, though nearly all have been inhibited to a certain extent by the interests and policies of the milieu in which they appeared. There are, however, several encyclopaedias that have been planned deliberately for a special purpose. Historia is one of the most remarkable encyclopaedias ever compiled.
Many of both the Arabic and Chinese classical encyclopaedias were compiled with the object of helping civil service candidates in their studies and of providing administrators with the cultural background needed for their work.
Their interest to historians of the two cultures can well be understood, for their arrangement and contents throw useful light on the concepts of administration and justice to name only two aspects in the Chinese and Islamic worlds during the 7th to 15th centuries. Of the Western medieval encyclopaedias, the most interesting in this respect is the De naturis rerum c.
His aim was that of St. Religion and politics were the main motives for writing encyclopaedias with a special purpose. The outcome was a giant reference work that criticized the government, satirized the Calvinist clergy of Geneva, championed the Enlightenment, and supported an atheistic materialism. To the more rigid members of the French establishment, the encyclopaedia was a monster. The more worldly, however, had no objection to a work whose succeeding volumes were each an audacious source of scandal.
Even the French encyclopaedist Pierre Larousse was not impartial.
File:Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Volume 4.pdf
And Johann Gottfried von Herderin the heart of Roman Catholic Germany, produced a counterweight to the Protestant Brockhaus in his Konversations-Lexikon —57 —soon called, simply, Herder—which adopted a distinctive Catholic viewpoint. This excellent encyclopaedia was early recognized for its general impartiality, scholarship, and accuracy. In the long run, both Herder and Brockhaus gradually eliminated their sectarian inclinations.
His plan was different from that of other encyclopaedists, for he limited his work to the discussion in this order of theology, Christ and the redemption, the practical and ascetic life, thought, prayer, ethicsthe four cardinal virtues, human conduct, and the four senses.
This work could, in fact, be termed the first of the specialized, or topical, encyclopaedias. Apart from isolated examples, and the technical encyclopaedia of Theophilusthe specialized encyclopaedia did not really make an appearance until the 18th century.
The stimulus was probably provided by the increasing number of encyclopaedias that included the arts and sciences to such a point that some of them included little else.
In any classified encyclopaedia the individual classes do, of course, constitute a kind of specialized encyclopaedia, but such a work is not sufficiently self-contained to stand on its own. As the boundaries of knowledge contained in encyclopaedias expanded, there were at least some attempts to produce specialized works of this kind. Biography The first real effort toward a specialized encyclopaedia was made in the midth century, and the subject field that it treated was biography.
The field of international biography is not a simple one to tackle, and there were only two further efforts of note: These two great works were to a certain extent competitive, which helped to improve their coverage and content; they are still used in research libraries. After their publication, the task of recording biographical information on a universal scale reverted to the general encyclopaedias. Chemistry, music, and philosophy Developments in the field of specialized encyclopaedias correspond closely to other developments in the world of scholarship.
It is, for example, no accident that so much attention should be paid to the subject of chemistry at a time when L.
The English scientist and inventor William Nicholson was first in the field with his Dictionary of Chemistrypublished by Sir Richard Phillips who later issued C. A volume second edition of the New Grove appeared in and also became available online. The publication of the German philosopher G. It influenced many editors of general encyclopaedias during the rest of the century.
The standard work in this field was for many years the Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology new ed. The Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophyedited by Edward Craig, was the first multivolume encyclopaedia published in the discipline in more than 30 years, and it was also made available online.
Other topics The Architectural Publication Society began issuing its Dictionary of Architecture as early asbut it took 40 years to complete. The informal title Pauly-Wissowa is very familiar to a great number of people. The new edition was begun by another German Classical philologist, Georg Wissowa, in James Hastings, a Scottish clergyman, was responsible for no fewer than four encyclopaedic works in this field: Other important works are The Catholic Encyclopedia —18which has not been completely superseded by the New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed.
Other significant encyclopaedias of religion include The Encyclopaedia of Islam new ed. It was not until the s that three of the most useful handbooks that were in daily use late into the 20th century began to appear.