B: Artificially Acquired Immunity - Biology LibreTexts
Studies on immune response of ducks to avian influenza and duck plague vaccines., Khodeir MH, E-mail: [email protected] Accepted Date: June 14, .. Active and passive immunization of ducks against duck viral enteritis. Immunity resulting from the development of antibodies in response to the presence of Related to active immunity: passive immunity, natural immunity, artificial. artificially acquired active immunity; artificially acquired passive immunity If at a later date the body is again exposed to that same antigen, the.
The difference between passive and active immunity?
Killed organisms, fragmented microorganisms, or antigens produced by recombinant DNA technology Examples of vaccines containing killed or inactivated microbes include: The IPV or inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine containing inactivated poliomyelitis viruses types 1, 2, and 3; The rabies vaccines containing whole, killed rabies viruses; The influenza vaccines consist of inactivated influenza viruses, either whole or broken down; The hepatitis A vaccine containing inactivated hepatitis A virus; RV1, an attenuated strain of a human rotavirus.
Rotaviruses are the most common cause of gastroenteritis in children. Examples of vaccines containing fragments of microorganisms include the immunizations for: Meningococcal meningitis; contains capsular polysaccharide from 4 strains of Neisseria meningitidis; Pneumococcal pneumonia; PCV13 containing capsular material from the 13 most serious strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children conjugated to diphtheria toxoid protein; PCV 23 containing capsular material from the 23 most serious strains of S.
These vaccines contain polysaccharide capsular material from the bacteria, usually conjugated to protein for greater immunogenicity. The body responds by producing opsonizing antibodies against the capsule. While the B-cell receptors of B-lymphocytes can recognize epitopes on polysaccharides, T4-lymphocytes can only recognize peptide epitopes bound to MHC-II molecules. They then present the peptide to the TCRs on T4-lymphocytes for their activation.
DEV has produced significant losses in waterfowl [ 1 ]. Vaccination is the basic prevention for DP; Attenuated and inactive vaccines are found in the market. In general, modifiedlive vaccines induce better protection from challenge when compared to inactivated vaccines [ 2 ]. All types of birds are susceptible to the virus, but outbreaks occur most often in chickens and turkeys.
Waterfowl including ducks generally are the natural reservoir of AIVs, and also thought to be the source of all influenza A viruses in other animal species, playing an important role in the maintenance of HPAI [ 3 ]. Vaccination by inactivated vaccines has proven efficiency in reducing morbidity, mortality and transmission of AIV infection in domestic birds including ducks.
13.3B: Artificially Acquired Immunity
Neutralizing antibodies produced against HA and NA are protective against challenge by the same subtype. In Egypt, vaccination became the only tool used to control H5N1 virus, as other aspects of the control plan have been ignored [ 4 ].
The present work aims to evaluate the humoral immune response of ducks to DP and AI vaccines administrated singly or simultaneously. Materials and Methods Vaccines Inactivated avian influenza vaccine: And used for immunization of experimental ducks. Each dose contains EID Viruses and viral antigens Avian influenza antigen: H5N2 antigen of avian influenza virus was supplied by ID.
Could these immune reactions be incorporated within vaccines? Currently hypothetical, these issues need consideration. A study by Pabst et al. Their results showed that breastfeeding significantly enhanced cell-mediated immune response to BCG vaccine given at birth but had no significant effect if the vaccine was given after 1 month. These findings were not related to maternal history of tuberculosis or BCG vaccination [ 47 ].
Additionally, the timing of immunization to the infant seems to be important. A study by Levi et al. These results suggested that certain antibody-antigen complexes are more immunogenic than antigens alone emphasizing that when infants are immunized shortly after birth in the presence of a large amount of circulating antibody the immune response is depressed [ 48 ].
Pneumococcal diseases such as pneumonia, septicaemia and bacterial meningitis are important to be prevented from birth as children younger than two years of age are extremely susceptible to these infections [ 49 ]. However, infant vaccination against pneumococcal diseases starts only as early as around two months of age and in many developing countries is not part of the compulsory vaccination schedule, making it more difficult to be implemented in some parts of the population [ 49 ].
Studies on immune response of ducks to avian influenza and duck plague vaccines.
Another study by Greenwood explored the potential of maternal immunization to prevent early infant deaths in developing countries. The author emphasized that the incidence of pneumococcal infections is high in many developing countries and a significant proportion of these infections occur at an age before vaccine induced protection [ 50 ].
A recent animal study provided evidence that maternal immunization with pneumococcal surface protein A protects against pneumococcal diseases among the offspring [ 51 ].
Moreover, immunization with recombinant PspA and cholera toxin B subunit CTB resulted in Anti-PspA specific IgG present at a high level in the serum and milk of immunized mothers as well as in the sera of their offspring [ 51 ]. Authors suggested that the rationale of maternal immunization pari passu continued exclusive breastfeeding is highly applicable in these diseases and is a preventive strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality during early childhood [ 51 ].
The potency and safety of vaccines administered to mothers and the seasonal influence of microbes that are adept at antigenic variations are immunological characteristics that must be considered in the administration of vaccination to pregnant mothers.
Previous studies explored the immunogenicity of inactivated influenza virus vaccine during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy [ 52 ]. The authors concluded that immunization of pregnant women can provide sufficient protection of the newborns via transplacental maternal antibodies if a more potent influenza vaccine is administered and the women deliver during the influenza season [ 52 ].
Another study provided seroepidemiological data on influenza A and B antibodies in pregnant women and their offspring in Germany [ 53 ]. Results revealed that antibody titers against both influenza A and B viruses were significantly lower in mothers than in their newborns [ 53 ]. The authors concluded that because of active placental transport of IgG antibodies, neonates have higher prevalence and concentrations of influenza A and B virus-specific antibodies induced by natural infections than their mothers [ 53 ].
A study by Zaman at al. Authors concluded that maternal vaccination is a protective strategy of great benefits for both mothers and infants. In a cohort study by Nankabirwa et al.
- Active vs. Passive Immunity?
- Breastfeeding as a Tool that Empowers Infant Immunity through Maternal Vaccination
The authors recommend that resources for routine childhood vaccinations should specifically be targeted at women with low formal education. We hypothesize that there are common areas of intersection that represent known and plausible beneficial effects of the tetrad of maternal vaccination, effective counselling on infant vaccination, breastfeeding and preventive counselling of diseases as primary health care tools Figure 3.
Common areas of plausible beneficial effects of maternal vaccination, effective counselling on infant vaccination, breastfeeding and preventive counselling of diseases. It is known that maternal factors also contribute to the infant immune development.
An important property of breastmilk is its capacity to down-regulate the immature and excessive inflammation in newborns. It has been reported that many components of breastmilk are anti- inflammatory in nature and that these components can work separately or together to control the immature inflammation until the mature immune response can develop. In the context of this article, this capacity is deemed to be beneficial in dampening unnecessary immune responses due to either infant or maternal vaccination and may explain some of the decreased side effects observed during vaccination of a breastfed infant.
The immunological components in breastmilk are many. There are diverse and multifunctional. It is proposed that vaccines that are given to the mother can pass through breastmilk and potentially utilise theses breastmilk components to augment action and protection. Protection via maternal vaccination is vital during a time that some important vaccines may not yet be administered by schedule to the neonate or because desired vaccine responses in the neonate are difficult to elicit due to physiologic immaturity of the neonatal immune system.
The increasing global incidence of antibiotic resistance to treat important infections affecting the infant makes it crucial to emphasize the importance of breastfeeding and possibly enhancing microbial protection transferred through maternal vaccination as a primary preventive strategy.
It is hypothesised that many collateral benefits may be obtained by maternal vaccination together with breastfeeding such as the nonspecific general augmentation of breastmilk immunity and even long term protection. It is felt that globally, the more accessed antenatal clinics should routinely practice the delivery of this multi-pronged system of primary protection augmenting primary prevention through the tetrad of maternal vaccination, advice on infant vaccination, exclusive breastfeeding and general health counselling of the prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases Figure 3.
After further exploration and observational study, governments and health care providers could plausibly save revenue on the treatment and care of infectious diseases and even other diseases in the long term, using the primary preventive tetrad, given the enormous immunological prowess that lies within breast milk.Immunity: Active vs Passive
This review reinforces the concept that high titers of maternal antibodies against bacterial and viral antigens are transferred to the fetus when women are vaccinated in the antenatal period. If a program of maternal vaccination in the second trimester were to be adopted as a standard practice, there would be less risk for infants to various infectious diseases in the first six months of life until their vaccination establishes active immunity.
Maternal vaccination has emerged as a promising approach to prevent morbidity among infants. Considerable achievements have been made in the past decade, with a number of vaccines being recommended for pregnancy. However, the public acceptance of maternal vaccination has been low in many countries.