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Reverend Cobbs stated that her uncle had repeatedly informed her he had been engaged in what he referred to as a "one-man battle" against blacks since the s. Cobbs also testified that, approximately one week after the bombing, she had observed Chambliss watching a news article relating to the four girls killed in the bombing. According to Cobbs, Chambliss had informed her: Jackson testified that Chambliss had expressed frustration as to his Chambliss's belief that the Klan was "dragging its feet" on the issue of racial integration, [13] and of his eagerness to form a more virulent splinter group.

16th Street Baptist Church bombing - Wikipedia

Noting that the day of the closing argument fell upon what would have been Carol Denise McNair's 26th birthday, and that she would have likely been a mother by this date, Baxley harked towards the testimony earlier delivered by Carol's father, Chris McNair, and requested that the jury return a verdict of guilty. Hanes also harked towards the testimony of several of the 12 witnesses the defense had called to testify as to Chambliss's whereabouts on the day of the bombing, including a policeman and a neighbor who had each testified as to Chambliss being at the home of a man named Clarence Dill on the day of the bombing.

Following the closing arguments, the jury retired to begin their deliberations, which lasted for over six hours and continued into the following day.

On November 18,[90] Robert Chambliss was found guilty of the murder of Carol Denise McNair [91] and sentenced to life imprisonment for her murder.

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I didn't bomb that church. Although Baxley knew he had insufficient evidence to charge Blanton at this stage, this subpoena was issued in the hope of frightening Blanton into confessing his involvement and negotiating a deal to turn state evidence against his co-conspirators. Blanton, however, simply hired a lawyer and refused to answer any questions. This appeal was dismissed on May 22, He had repeatedly proclaimed his innocence—repeatedly insisting Gary Thomas Rowe Jr.

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Both named individuals were charged with four counts of first-degree murder, and four counts of universal malice. In his opening statement to the jurors, defense attorney John Robbins acknowledged his client's affiliation with the Ku Klux Klan and his views on racial segregation, but warned the jury: Burns had secretly recorded several conversations with Blanton in which he Blanton had gloated when talking about the bombing, and had boasted the police would not catch him when he bombed another church.

Although sections of the recording—presented in evidence on April 27—are unintelligible, Blanton can twice be heard mentioning the phrase "plan a bomb" or "plan the bomb".

Most crucially, Blanton can also be heard describing his not being with Miss Vaughn, but at a meeting with other Ku Klux Klansmen on a bridge above the Cahaba River two nights before the bombing, [] adding: Blanton's attorneys also criticized the validity and quality of the 16 tape recordings introduced as evidence, [] arguing that the prosecution had deliberately spliced the sections of the audio recording secretly obtained within Blanton's kitchen, reducing the entirety of the tape by 26 minutes, and that the sections presented were of a poor audio quality, requiring the prosecution to present questionable text transcripts to the jury.

In reference to the recordings made as Blanton conversed with Burns, Robbins emphasized that Burns had earlier testified that Blanton had never expressly stated he had made or planted the bomb, [] and portrayed the audio tapes introduced into evidence as the statements of "two rednecks driving around, drinking" and making false, ego-inflating claims to one another.

One of the defense witnesses was a retired chef named Eddie Mauldin, who was called to testify in an effort to discredit prosecution witnesses' statements that they had seen Blanton in the vicinity of the church prior to the bombing. Mauldin testified on April 30 that he had observed two men in a Rambler station wagon adorned with a confederate flag repeatedly drive past the church immediately before the blast, and that, seconds after the bomb had exploded, the car had "burned rubber" as it drove away.

Thomas Blanton had owned a Chevrolet in[] and neither Chambliss, Cash nor Cherry had owned such a vehicle. Both counsels delivered their closing arguments before the jury on May 1.

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In his closing argument, prosecuting attorney Doug Jones first pointed to the fact that the trial was conducted 38 years after the bombing made the trial no less important, adding: It's never too late for a man to be held accountable for his crimes. Jones then recited the most damning statements Blanton had made in these recordings, before pointing at Blanton and stating: Stressing that Blanton should not be judged for his beliefs, Robbins again vehemently criticized the validity and poor quality of the audio recordings presented, and the selectivity of the sections which had been introduced into evidence.

Robbins also discredited the testimony of FBI agent William Fleming, who had earlier testified as to a government witness claiming he had seen Blanton in the vicinity of the church shortly before the bombing.

His first parole hearing was held on August 3, He is next eligible for parole in In his opening statement for the prosecution, Don Cochran outlined that he expected the evidence to be presented to show that Cherry had participated in a conspiracy to commit the bombing and conceal evidence linking him to the crime, and that he had later gloated over the deaths of the victims.

Cochran also added that although the evidence to be presented would not conclusively show that Cherry had actually planted or ignited the bomb, the combined evidence would illustrate that he had aided and abetted in the commission of the act. Johnson then warned the jurors they would have to draw a distinction between evidence and proof. Following the opening statements, the prosecution began presenting witnesses.

Crucial testimony at Cherry's trial was delivered by his former wife, Willadean Brogdon, whom Cherry had married in Brogdon testified on May 16 that Cherry had boasted to her that he had been the individual who planted the bomb beneath the steps to the church, then returned hours later to light the fuse upon the dynamite. Brogdon also testified that Cherry had informed her of his regret that children had died in the bombing, before adding his contentment that they would never reproduce. Although the credibility of Brogdon's testimony was called into dispute at the trial, forensic experts did concede that, although her account of the planting of the bombing differed from that which had been discussed in the previous perpetrators' trials, Brogdon's recollection of Cherry's account of the planting and subsequent lighting of the bomb could explain why no conclusive remnants of a timing device were subsequently discovered after the bombing.

Cross had been slightly wounded in the bombing, and had attended the same Sunday School class as the four victims on the day of the bombing. On May 15, [] Cross testified that prior to the explosion, she and the four girls killed had each attended a Youth Day Sunday School lesson in which the theme taught was how to react to a physical injustice. Cross testified that each girl present had been taught to contemplate how Jesus would react to affliction or injustice, with the message taught being to consider, "What Would Jesus Do?

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Shortly thereafter, she had heard "the most horrible noise", before being struck on the head by debris. Throughout the trial, Cherry's defense attorney, Mickey Johnson, repeatedly observed that many of the prosecution's witnesses were either circumstantial or "inherently unreliable". Many of the same audio tapes presented in Blanton's trial were also introduced into evidence in the trial of Bobby Cherry. A key point contested as to the validity of the audio tapes being introduced into evidence, outside the hearing of the jury, was the fact that Cherry had no grounds to contest the introduction of the tapes into evidence, as, under the Fourth Amendmentneither his home or property had been subject to discreet recording by the FBI.

This was disputed by Don Cochran, who argued that Alabama law allows conspiracies to conceal evidence to be proven by both inference and circumstantial evidence. Through these rulings, Mitchell Burns was also called to testify on behalf of the prosecution, although his testimony was restricted to the areas of the recordings permitted into evidence.

Prosecutor Doug Jones points toward Bobby Cherry as he delivers his closing argument to the jury. May 21, On May 21,both prosecution and defense attorneys delivered their closing arguments to the jury. In his closing argument for the prosecution, Don Cochran gave attention to the fact the victims' "Youth Sunday [sermon] never happened Cochran also reminded the jury of a secretly-obtained FBI recording which had earlier been introduced into evidence in which Cherry had informed his first wife, Jean, that he and other Klansmen had constructed the bomb within the premises of a business the Friday before the bombing, and that Cherry had signed an affidavit in the presence of the FBI on October 9,confirming that he, Chambliss and Blanton were at these premises on this date.

Johnson then urged the jury not to convict his client via guilt by association. Following these closing arguments, the jury retired to consider their verdicts. These deliberations continued until the following day. On the afternoon of May 22, after deliberating for almost seven hours, the forewoman of the jury announced they had reached their verdicts: Bobby Frank Cherry was convicted of four counts of first-degree murder and sentenced to life imprisonment.

I told the truth. I don't know why I'm going to jail for nothing. I haven't done anything! Baxley acknowledged that the social circumstances in s Alabama would likely have leaned in favor of both defendants even with the FBI recordings presented in evidence, [] but added that he could have prosecuted Thomas Blanton—and likely Bobby Cherry—inhad he been granted access to the secretly recorded tapes of Blanton conversing with his wife and with FBI informant Mitchell Burns.

A Justice Department report had concluded that J. Edgar Hoover had blocked prosecution of the four suspects of the bombing in[7] and had officially closed the investigation in Rowe had been encouraged to join the Klan by acquaintances in before becoming a paid FBI informant just two months after the bombing. Although informative to the FBI, Rowe participated in violence against blacks and white civil rights activists. By Rowe's own later admission, in his role as an FBI informant, he had shot and killed an unidentified black man and had been an accessory to the murder of Viola Liuzzo.

Prosecutors at Chambliss's trial had initially intended to call Rowe as a witness; however, William Baxley had opted not to call Rowe as a witness after being informed of the results of these polygraph tests. Although never formally named as one of the conspirators by the FBI, Rowe's record of deception on the polygraph tests leaves open the possibility that Chambliss's claims may have held a degree of truth.

Their deaths made all of us focus upon the ugliness of those who would punish people because of the color of their skin. September 15, Following the bombing, the 16th Street Baptist Church remained closed for over eight months, as assessments and, later, repairs were conducted upon the property. The church reopened to members of the public on June 7,and continues to remain an active place of worship today, with an average weekly attendance of nearly 2, worshippers.

The current pastor of the church is the Reverend Arthur Price Jr. Collins' injuries were so extensive that medical personnel did initially fear she would lose the sight in both eyes, although by October, they were able to inform Collins she would regain the sight in her left eye. We wonder what he would be thinking today, if he had children He will face God. We turn this problem over to God, because no one else can solve Birmingham's problems.

We leave it up to God to solve them. Within three months, Morgan and his family were forced to flee Birmingham. Following the bombing, Bevel and his then-wife, Dianerelocated to Alabama, [] where they tirelessly worked upon the Alabama Project for Voting Rights, which aimed to extend full voting rights for all eligible citizens of Alabama regardless of race. This initiative subsequently contributed to the Selma to Montgomery marcheswhich themselves resulted in the Voting Rights Act ofthus prohibiting any form of racial discrimination within the process of voting.

Designed by artist John Pettsthe stained-glass window depicts a black Christ with his arms outstretched; his right arm pushing away hatred and injustice, the left extended in an offering of forgiveness. Sculpted by Carmarthenshire -based artist John Pettswho had initiated a campaign in Wales to raise money to fund a replacement stained-glass window which had been destroyed in the bombing.

Petts had opted to construct a stained-glass image of a black Christ to replace one of the windows destroyed in the bombing.

In a interview focusing upon his recollections of the bombing, Petts recollected: Several dozen people were present at the unveiling, presided over by state Senator Roger Bedford. At the service, the four girls were described as martyrs who "died so freedom could live". He was never charged with his alleged involvement in the bombing, and did maintain his innocence. Sticky style nagellack feather effect: Review your car, or how to see if you make a great opening free speed dating east london tonight.

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