Applicable to public utilities only (not to mobile or Internet services). For complaints, the SIC provides a channel to file complaints, provided the operator's. Fabio Di DarioI; Ana Cristina PetryI; Matheus Maia de Souza PereiraI; Michael A total of 81 species were recorded in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, .. among themselves, but they are not connected through the Campos-Macaé channel. .. Number of specimens (in parentheses), name of lagoon, and date of . 13 jun. (Coleção circles) Outros autores: Carolina de Jesus Pereira, Elaine Carvalho Possible answer: It's about a modern habit because online dating became popular only 09_PDF-ING-EMV1-ULA-Gindd 81 . On many websites, there is a channel to report inappropriate content.
Vegetal fibers, also called lignocellulosic fibers, are basically composed by lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose, and the amount, morphology and how these constituents are found in the fibers depend on many factors.
Thus the study of lignocellulosic fiber reinforced polymer composite focus on understanding the properties of composites according to fiber properties, taking into account parameters such as, the type of fiber reinforcement and matrix content, fiber surface treatments and processing conditions. Depending on the type of polymer matrix, thermoplastic or thermoset, a single fiber may also have a different effect on the final properties of the composites. This study showed therefore a summary of the main results obtained in recent studies using natural composite.
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Carbohydrate Polymers, 78 3 Monomers, polymers and composites from renewable resources. Natural fibers, biopolymers, and biocomposites. Natural fibers, plastics and composites. Progress report on natural fiber reinforced composites. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 1 Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 44, Hydroxyl accessibility in celluloses.
Polymer, 35 22 Green composites from sustainable cellulose nanofibrils: Carbohydrate Polymers, 87 2 Atomic force microscopy characterization of the surface wettability of natural fibres. Applied Surface Science, 7 The evolution, dissemination and classification of Cocos nucifera. Botanical Review, 44 3 Structure property studies of fibres from various parts of the coconut tree. Journal of Materials Science, 17 8 Composite of short coir fibres and natural rubber: Polymer, 39 An empirical evaluation of structure-property relationships in natural fibres and their fracture behaviour.
Materials Science, 21 12 Effects of alkali treatment on electrical and spectral properties of coir fibre. Journal of Materials Science Letters, 12 17 Characterization and factors affecting fiber properties. However, some species reported exclusively in the Imboassica Lagoon are typical inhabitants of continental coastal environments, and they might also occur in the comparatively less studied lagoons of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park. That is possibly the case of the ophichthids Myrophis punctatus and Ophichthus cylindroideus.
Three species, in particular, are also relatively common in environments similar to the lagoons of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, and therefore their occurrence in the Park is highly probable: Eighty-one species of fishes were recorded in the lagoons and pools of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park.
Those species belong to 18 orders and 34 families of the Teleostei.
When only the fishes recorded in the Jurubatiba National Park are considered, families with the largest number of species are the Carangidae nine speciesEngraulidae eight speciesGobiidae seven speciesCharacidae six speciesGerreidae five speciesand the Clupeidae, Poeciliidae, and Cichlidae each with three species. All other families are represented by only one or two species. Fifty-seven of all fishes recorded in the lagoons of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park were regarded as Residents.
When only Resident species are considered, families with the largest number of species are the Gobiidae seven speciesCharacidae six speciesGerreidae five speciesand the Poeciliidae and Cichlidae each with three species. The other 19 families with Resident species recorded in the lagoons of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park are represented by one or two species. Seventy species of fishes, including Resident and Occasional, were recorded in the Carapebus Lagoon.
As an anecdotal comparison that illustrates the relatively high fish diversity found in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, the number of species found in the Carapebus Lagoon alone is equivalent to about one-third of all known freshwater fishes of Australia e. The Carapebus Lagoon also has the largest number of species that were exclusively recorded in a single lagoon of the Park. With the exception of one species, all the eight species exclusively recorded in the Carapebus Lagoon are marine and relatively common in the region, and were regarded as Occasional.
These species are the anchovies Anchoa januaria, A. Two other resident species of the Carapebus Lagoon are the non-native pacu-peva Metynnis maculatus and the African tilapia, Tilapia rendalli.
The other lagoons of the Park included in this study have less than ten recorded species. As the sampling effort was unequal among lagoons, those numbers are merely descriptive and might underestimate the presumed diversity of at least some lagoons. Three species, for instance, were exclusively recorded in freshwater pools Pools in Table 1adjacent to the Piripiri and Catingosa lagoons.
One of them is the Near Threatened Atlantirivulus jurubatibensis, which up to this day is the only known endemic species of fish recorded in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park.
Species richness and possible correlations with area and salinity The local richness of species is typically higher in Orthogonal lagoons among the lagoons studied Table 2. An analysis of the specific composition of the Resident species excluding those found exclusively in the pools revealed a strong pattern of segregation of the lagoons.
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Two larger clusters are recognizable in the space between the two axes of the CA: A small group of fishes composed by Phalloptychus januarius, Jenynsia multidentata, Brachyhypopomus janeiroensis, Poecilia vivipara, Atherinella brasiliensis and Tilapia rendalli influenced the ordination of the Parallel lagoons and the Preta Lagoon, which are more similar among themselves in terms of fish composition when compared to the Orthogonal lagoons.
Orthogonal lagoons also share a higher number of Resident species, with values ranging between 8 and However, the co-occurrence of species is not pronounced among Orthogonal lagoons, a condition which determined a higher dispersion of those lagoons along the first two axes of the CA.
This result is mostly influenced by the species exclusively recorded in the Imboassica Lagoon, such as Ctenogobius shufeldti, C. Marine species and species of the Secondary Division were more frequent in Orthogonal and Parallel lagoons, respectively. Summing up, Parallel and Orthogonal lagoons are significantly different in terms of the composition of Resident species according to the CA Figure 2C.
Typically in moderately sized lagoons, with less than 2 km2, fishes of the Secondary Division account for at least half of their total species richness. A correlation between the area of the lagoons and the ratio of species of the Primary or Secondary Divisions, or marine fishes, was also not found Figure 3. However, a positive correlation between the ratio of species of the Secondary Division and the salinity was found in the analysis. This result highlights the relevance of those species to the composition of the fish community in lagoons with a low richness.
Fishes of the Primary Division were only marginally correlated with the salinity, in a negative correlation. Interestingly, the proportion of marine species was not correlated with the salinity of the lagoons Figure 2.
Discussion The total richness of fish species of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park is approximately two times higher than indicated in previous studies e. A more refined knowledge of the diversity of these lagoons clearly reflects the intensity with which they have been studied in the last decade, particularly after the onset of the "PELD, Site 5".
A large portion of the continental species of fishes whose occurrences in the region are expected according to their currently known geographic distributions have been actually recorded in this study. We suspect, therefore, that future sampling efforts will mostly result in the documentation of Occasional marine species in the lagoons of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park. However, additional, yet unrecorded, Resident fishes might inhabit the relatively less explored lagoons of the Park, such as the Preta, Piripiri, Visgueiro and Catingosa.
That is possibly the case of the fat sleeper Dormitator maculatus Eleotridaewhich has been collected in other lagoons of the northern Rio de Janeiro State e. The idea that the Jurubatiba National Park might still harbor some rare species of fishes is evidenced by two small pools identified as Pools in Table 1 associated to the Piripiri and Catingosa lagoons, which only recently were sampled.
The eventual addition of this "hidden diversity" to the list of species of the Park would not substantially modify the total number of recorded species, but would certainly be relevant in terms of conservation in view of their rarity and possible endemism. Two introduced species have been recorded in the lagoons of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park. One of them is the pacu-peva Metynnis maculatus, whose occurrence in the Park is herein reported for the first time.
We suppose instead that M. The occurrence of pacu-pevas in other lagoons of the Park and the possible effects of their introduction into these ecosystems should be monitored in future studies.
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Another introduced species recorded in several lagoons of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park and the Imboassica Lagoon is the African tilapia, Tilapia rendalli. That species is frequently caught in moderate to high quantities, and seems to be well established in the Park. The guppy Poecilia reticulata, recorded in the Imboassica Lagoon only among the lagoons studied, is widely regarded as an easily adaptable exotic species. Their occurrence in the Imboassica Lagoon indicates that the species is likely to succeed in the lagoons of the Park in the case of one or more events of introduction.
It is also possible that guppies are already inhabiting the less explored lagoons or pools inside the Park, especially those with moderate to higher levels of salinity. That species is extremely resilient, occurring in several different habitats, especially in lentic environments similar to those of the Jurubatiba National Park. Clarias gariepinnus is a generalist predator that can reach up to cm TL Teugels, The species is also able to naturally disperse through land between closely located water bodies or during flood events.
The introduction of C. The relatively high number of typically marine species recorded in the lagoons of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park and the Imboassica Lagoon clearly indicates that their fish fauna communities are largely influenced by the sea. Some Resident species of marine fishes, such as Atherinella brasiliensis and the species of Centropomus, Diapterus, Eucinostomus, and Mugil, are apparently spending their whole life cycles in lagoons where salinity levels are relatively high.
However, other marine species regarded as Residents and Occasional enter the lagoons probably through a combination of two different processes, whose relative influences to the fish composition probably vary according to the orientation of the lagoons. In Orthogonal lagoons, we suspect that the intrusion of marine species is mostly related to events of sandbar breaching. Those events naturally occur in several lagoons of the region, and are artificially induced in the Imboassica Lagoon and, less frequently, in the Carapebus and Paulista lagoons.
In Parallel lagoons, sandbar breaching is less frequent or practically inexistent in the recent geological history. However, marine species might be able to penetrate those lagoons during events of extremely high and strong tides, when sea waves are known to overcome the sandbars, carrying larvae and juveniles into the lagoons.
The high frequency of occurrence of those events in the lagoons of the region probably explain why a correlation between levels of salinity and presence of marine fishes or of fishes of the Primary Division of Myers was not found. A combination of those events, sandbar breaching and intrusion of larvae and juveniles during extreme high and strong tides, is also probably correlated with the higher number of Occasional species found in Orthogonal lagoons.
Those factors together might also contribute to the higher number of species recorded in them, even though a correlation between the area alone and species richness was not supported according to our results.
A higher similarity in terms of species composition among Parallel lagoons, when compared to Orthogonal ones, was also observed. This result might reflects the lower number of species recorded in the Parallel lagoons in comparison to the Orthogonal ones, which are more influenced by the sea in terms of species composition. However, other minor channels that connect the distal opposite to the sea portion of the Parallel lagoons might also help to explain why their fish communities seem to be more similar when compared to Orthogonal lagoons.
Floods in strong rainy season, which are relatively common in the region, might also sporadically connect the Parallel lagoons, promoting a higher similarity among their fish communities. Identification key of Resident species recorded in the Imboassica Lagoon and in the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park The identification key below includes 57 Resident species of fishes recorded in the Imboassica Lagoon and the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park.
As in all regional keys, we strongly recommend that this key be used with caution. Table 1 lists all species of fishes that have been so far recorded in the Imboassica Lagoon and the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, including 43 that were regarded as Occasional and, consequently, are not included in the key. The species composition of those lagoons is largely influenced by the sea, with the consequence that some yet unrecorded stenotopic or euryhaline marine species might be occasionally collected.
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A single species of silverside, Atherinella brasiliensis Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae was recorded in our study, but a morphologically similar species, A.
Another species of silverside, Odontesthes argentinensis, was recorded only recently in the region Di Dario et al. Those species have not yet been collected in the lagoons of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park or in the Imboassica Lagoon, but their occurrence in those water bodies should not be disregarded.
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Body asymmetric, both eyes on the same side of the body Body bilaterally symmetrical, eyes on each side of the body Both eyes on the left side of the body; margin of preopercle exposed Both eyes on the right side of the body; margin of preopercle covered by skin Origin of the dorsal fin closer to the anterior nostril than to the posterior nostril; posterior end of upper jaw extending to the pupil of the ventral eye Origin of dorsal fin equidistant between anterior and posterior nostrils, or close to posterior nostril; posterior end of upper jaw reaching the posterior border of the orbit of the ventral eye Dorsal fin with rays; body uniformly dark Dorsal fin with rays; body with about 10 dark transverse bands from tip of snout to caudal-fin base Body elongated, anguilliform, or knife- shaped; pelvic fins absent Body not elongated, different from the conditions above; pelvic fins present Pectoral fins absent; a single gill opening, located in the midline of the ventral portion of the head Pectoral fins present; independent gill openings, laterally-placed in the head Body covered by sequential rings of bony plates; anal fin absent or reduced, with less than 10 rays; dorsal and caudal fins present Body covered with scales; anal fin developed, with more than rays; dorsal and caudal fins absent Anal fin absent; body covered by bony plates; median ridge of the trunk rising approximately at the anus region, continuing to the posterior region of the body as the upper tail crest; brood pouch caudal Anal fin present, reduced; body covered by bony plates; median ridge of the trunk continuous with the ventral caudal crest at the anus region; brood pouch abdominal Body cylindrical at the trunk region; mouth directed upwards, relatively wide, larger than or equal to the interorbital distance Body laterally compressed at the trunk region; mouth terminal or directed downwards, relatively small, smaller than the interorbital distance Spines absent on fins, fins formed only by soft rays Spines present on fins, soft rays absent or present on fins Mouth protractile, terminal or directed upwards; upper jaw formed by premaxilla only Mouth not protractile, terminal or directed downwards; upper jaw formed by the maxilla and premaxilla Anal fin with rays; dorsal fin displaced posteriorly in relation to the middle portion of the body; branchiostegal and opercular membranes united; anal fin of males without copulatory organ gonopodium Anal fin with less than 10 rays; dorsal fin in the middle portion of the body; opercular and branchiostegal membranes separate; anal fin of adult males modified, forming a copulatory organ gonopodium Several lateral small dark blotches variously shaped, sometimes in the form of small dashes or forming a longitudinal stripe along the body; pelvic fins in the abdominal region; gonopodium formed by all anal-fin rays, forming a single tube, without distal appendages Lateral blotches, when present, circular or forming vertical lines; pelvic fins in the thoracic region; gonopodium formed only by rayswith small appendages at their distal tip Vertical dark lines conspicuously present at the sides of the body Vertical dark lines at the sides of the body absent or extremely faint, round dark spots present or absent Round dark spot on the side of the body posterior to the dorsal fin Round dark spot on the side of the body absent or, if present, anterior to the dorsal fin Color of males and females similar; males and females with a round dark spot on the side of the body anterior to the dorsal fin; scales without dark pigmentation around the edges, general body coloration not reticulate; adult males only slightly smaller than females Pronounced sexual chromatic dimorphism; color variable, usually more conspicuous in males, round spots present or absent in males and absent in females; edge of scales with dark pigmentation, forming a faint reticulate pattern; males markedly smaller than adult females Lateral line restricted to the cephalic region, absent on sides of body Lateral line developed, reaching the tail region, or restricted to the anterior third of the body Snout round and elongated, "pig-like"; mouth located on ventral portion of head; mouth relatively developed, articulation between upper and lower jaws posterior to vertical through the posterior margin of orbit; abdominal scutes absent, except for pelvic scute at the anterior region of pelvic fins Snout short, relatively truncate; mouth terminal or slightly directed upwards; mouth relatively small, articulation between upper and lower jaws anterior to vertical through the anterior margin of orbit; abdominal scutes present, forming a pronounced ventral keel in the abdominal region Teeth highly reduced in size and approximately equal in terms of development in both jaws; body comparatively high, greatest height contained less than four times in Standard Length Teeth well developed in both jaws, canine-like, slightly more developed and spaced in the lower jaw; body relatively elongated, greatest height contained more than four times in Standard Length Pelvic fin with 8 rays Pelvic fin with 7 rays Body cylindrical; adipose fin absent; caudal fin rounded Body laterally compressed; adipose fin present; caudal fin forked Rounded black spot on the posterior portion of the opercle present; only conical teeth at the jaws, more developed caniniform teeth absent; maximum Standard Length not exceeding 25 cm, specimens usually smaller than that Rounded black spot on the posterior portion of the opercle absent; jaws with both conical and highly developed caniniform teeth, specially at the anterior margin of the jaws; maximum Standard Length about 50 cm, large specimens relatively common Teeth on jaws absent edentulous jaws Teeth on jaws present, variously developed Body markedly high, slightly rounded, 1.
Body relatively elongated, more than 2.
Snout highly elongated; highly developed conical teeth on both jaws, arranged in a single series in the premaxilla Snout short; teeth multicuspidate, comparatively reduced, arranged in two series in the premaxilla Lateral line complete, reaching the caudal fin Lateral line incomplete, not reaching the caudal fin, typically restricted to the anterior half of the body Two elongated dark humeral spots; dark spot on the sides of the caudal peduncle absent; fin-rays more developed in larger specimens, especially in the pelvic fin; several chevron-shaped marks serially aligned on the sides of the body, more distinct in preserved specimens A single spot in the humeral region; dark spot on the sides of the caudal peduncle present; fins not increasing markedly in size during development; chevron-shaped marks serially aligned on the sides of the body absent or highly inconspicuous Dark pigmentation on the edge of the scales present, forming a reticulate pattern of body coloration; dark lateral stripe absent; humeral spot approximately rounded, without a ventral projection in the shape of a comma Dark pigmentation on the edge of the scales absent, body coloration not reticulate, relatively uniform; dark lateral stripe present; humeral spot rounded, with a ventral projection similar to a comma Scales absent, body naked or covered by bony plates Scales present, bony plates absent Body conspicuously covered by bony plates Body totally naked, scales and bony plates absent Coracoid bones at the ventral portion of the body, between the pectoral fins, exposed Coracoid bones at the ventral portion of the body, between the pectoral fins, not exposed, covered by a relatively thick skin Adipose-fin base short, less than half the length of anal-fin base; body coloration dark overall, lighter on ventral portion; genital papilla of males supported by anterior rays of anal fin, forming an intromittent organ Adipose-fin base long, half or more the length of anal-fin base; body coloration gray or brownish; males without a dimorphic anal Anterior and posterior nostrils close; a single developed globular tooth-plate on each side of the mouth roof; gill membranes joined to isthmus and forming a free fold over it Anterior and posterior nostrils separated; tooth-plates at the mouth roof absent of different from the above; gill membranes not forming a free fold over the isthmus Maxillary barbel long, extending beyond the pelvic-fin origin