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Chemical attributes and particle size distribution of Dystrophic Red Latosol at two depths after harvest of sugarcane ratoons. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with five replications. Applied to the fields were kg ha-1 P2O5 in the form of triple superphosphate and 20 kg of S in the form of gypsum.
The plots were composed of four rows measuring 10 m long, spaced 0.
Effect of potassium on nutritional status and productivity of peanuts in succession with sugar cane
Data of rainfall and maximum and minimum temperatures were obtained for determining the extract of the water balance recorded during the experiment Figure 1. It was observed that the driest month showed precipitation lower than 60 mm, where the rainy season began in the fall. Representation of the extract the thewater balance Thornthwaite and Mather, for soil evaluated in the city of Jaboticabal, SP - Brazil, from September to August Sowing of the peanuts was conducted two months after incorporation of the straw, at a density of 16 seeds per linear meter with the cultivar Runner IACwhich presented acreeping growth habit.
Weed control was performed by applying the herbicide trifluralinprior to planting and incorporated into the soil g ha-1 of i.
Growth was evaluated at days after germination of the crop, of 10 plants, considering three locations along the rows from the useful area of each plot. At full flowering of the peanut crop, 50 plants were sampled per plot by removing the apical tuft from the main stem, according to the indication proposed by Ambrosano et al.
Plants were separated by treatment and placed in a screened greenhouse for five days for pre-drying of the peanut, maintaining the plants with the pods facing up. After drying it was proceeded to manually remove and separate the pods from the grains, and later, the grains were weighed to calculate of the yield expressed in kg ha The data obtained was subjected to individual analysis of variance by the F-test.
To study the effect of K rates on the variables studied the significant polynomial regression analysis was used along with the greatest values of the coefficients of determination R2. Average diameter of the plant stem was 5 mm. Effect of potassium application on the number of leaves for the peanut evaluated at days after planting in Dystrophic Red Latosol.
Foliar potassium levels ranged from 50 to 70 g kg In all treatments the K concentrations are found above the adequate range for the crop 17 to 30 g kg-1 of K Gascho and Davis, ; Ambrosano et al. Potassium application caused a linear increase in leaf content of this nutrient in the peanut crop, reaching a content of 70 g kg-1 for the dose of kg ha-1 of K2O Figure 3.
Effect of potassium application on the leaf potassium concentration for the peanut cultivated in Dystrophic Red Latosol. Potassium levels linearly increased the production of peanut grains, where for the dose of kg ha-1 of K2O production reached kg ha-1 of grain Figure 4.
Effect of potassium application on yield for the peanut evaluated at days after planting in Dystrophic Red Latosol. The increase in productivity was approximately kg ha-1 between the control treatment and highest dose of K2O. It was observed that the highest yield is associated with leaf potassium content equal to 70 g kg-1 Figure 3above the levels indicated as adequate for the crop according to Ambrosano et al. Discussion Increase in plant height and number of leaves of the peanut crop may be linked to adequate water availability in the experimental area during the experimental period.
A beneficial effect of potassium on height of the peanut was observed by Pradyut et al. Basha and Rao found that the effect of potassium on the number of leaves may be attributed to the function of the nutrient in transport of carbohydrates, increasing photosynthesis.
Moreover, potassium plays an important role in the hormonal balance, influencing the increase in the level of auxin, an important hormone for plant growth Rubio et al. The high concentrations of K obtained, especially in the treatment without application of the macronutrient, may be associated with the residual effect of sugarcane straw, which was incorporated into the soil before planting the peanuts.
This contributed to the supply of this nutrient in soil due to its high and quick liberation capacity, which was also verified by other authors Rosolem et al. Potassium is the second most absorbed nutrient by sugarcane and because it remains almost entirely in the ionic form within the plant tissue Hawkesford et al.
The beneficial effect of potassium fertilization evidenced in the peanut crop was due to the low levels of exchangeable potassium in the soil layers of 0 to 20 cm 0. Thus, it can be inferred that potassium fertilization, along with the K released from the straw, increased the availability of this nutrient in the sorption complex and in the soil solution, permitting better absorption of nutrients as evidenced by the nutritional status of the crop, therefore favoring the increase in grain production.
The beneficial effect of K on grain production is related to its known role in plant nutrition, in many physiological and metabolic processes,including photosynthesis, osmoregulation, transport of nutrients, transport and storage of carbohydrates, nitrogen absorption and synthesis of proteins and starch Hawkesford et al. These differences between the optimum foliar potassium concentrations 70 g kg-1 found in this work and in literature Ambrosano et al.
Mathew et al,Pradyut et al. Assessing the effect of potassium doses in the peanut crop in two application forms, Sousa et al. These values are lower than those obtained in the present study, even in the control treatment which had a yield of kg ha It was observed that the crop reached such high productivity probably due to the optimal climatic conditions during the experimental period Figure 1 and use of a cultivar with high production potential, a factor which possibly favored the response of the crop to potassium application.
In peanut fields with production potential close to kg ha-1 of grains, in rotation with sugarcane, it is suggested to increase the indicated potassium dose from 60 kg ha-1 Quaggio and Godoy, to at least kg ha-1 K2O.
It is noted that there is a need for more studies utilizing higher potassium doses than those evaluated in this study to accurately define the maximum dose of fertilizer to be used.
Conclusion Sugarcane straw alone is not sufficient to meet the nutritional needs of peanuts planted in succession with sugarcane, where application of potassium fertilizer is necessary to obtain high yields.
Potassium fertilization improved the nutritional state which was reflected in increased grain production of the peanut crop cultivated in rotation with sugarcane, especially at the dose of kg ha-1 of K2O. Effect of potassium deficiency on growth and metabolism of peanut Arachis Hypogaea L. The Greeks also considered perpendicular brick walls more durable than stone walls and hcat them for public edifices.
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