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Hope you'll not get tired on creating posts as educational as this. I discovered your website through Google simultaneously as looking for a comparable matter, your web site received right here up. I've bookmarked it in my google bookmarks to come back later on. DDD, Batciylh dcdawsbs zgmktiof. As the very notion of non-native phenomena in English is predicated on the legitimacy of the error-driven, pedagogical enterprise that studies what it calls non-native varieties of English, perhaps I should begin with my very early reactions to Error Analysis in SLA, expressed in my review of Nickel The review in fact is a plea for abandoning the comparison of native competence with non-native performance, something which seemed to me to be the empirical bedrock of these enterprises, and an invitation to colleagues to undertake systematic investigation of rigorous hypotheses of the following sort from Singh The class of non-native errors always includes a subclass that will never be included in the class of native performance errors.
Annual Review of South Asian Languages and Linguistics: - PDF Free Download
As these reactions were based on some actual experience and some painfully collected data, let me briefly summarize the experience and the work these comments were based on. Inwhen I was involved with a Freshman Composition Programme at a US university, I noticed that some of my freshmen were doing things natives were not supposed to do or only nonnatives were supposed to do.
I tried to make sense of this in Singhwhere I point out that conclusions drawn from a comparison of native competence with non-native performance were flawed in fundamental ways.
The standard procedure of collecting performance data from L2 learners of English and having native speakers of English evaluate the grammaticality Nature, Structure and Status of Indian English 35 of the structures found in that data was like mixing oranges and apples. I argued that we needed to compare native performance with non-native performance and native competence with non-native competence for the latter, as we have known at least since Corderdo develop their own competence, not always directly reflected in their performance.
Our results established, once for all, that interlanguage speakers do not necessarily accept the structures they produce. Although all the three interventions mentioned above use data from Indian speakers, the emerging endo-normative nature of Indian English is not introduced as an issue in these interventions. The real questions clearly go beyond the deliberately limited mandates of these interventions: What does it mean to talk about nonnative phenomena?
Moreover, there is the problem that people all over Florida and South Carolina regularly say things like He might could do it. Such facts are carefully hidden by the Non-native English enterprise from their Asian readers. Let me first take up the issue of who counts as a native speaker.
In Singh in press I attempt to answer the question somewhat as follows. It is these considerations — of asymmetrical mapping and of use — that bring social parameters into the picture. A further complication is added by the so-called indigenized varieties of some European languages, particularly English for obvious reasons behind its international spread.
The debates regarding the status of these varieties, at least some of which are demonstrably fully rule-governed linguistic systems, have made it increasingly clear that multilingualism must be taken into account in providing a more viable characterization of the notion of native speaker.
However, they do so, with only a couple of exceptions, with what must be seen as a monolingual bias, remarkably clearly spelled out by Crystal and Quineand with an almost complete unawareness of questions thrown up by the existence of varieties such as Indian and Singaporean English. The old, monolingualist characterization of the concept of native speaker in terms of mother tongue or first language may no longer be sufficient cf.
The functionally determined distribution of the use of particular languages and the concomitant acquisition and competence in them in multilingual societies makes such accounts inadequate because neither the proficiency nor the competence of a multilingual speaker can be described in Nature, Structure and Status of Indian English 37 simple, additive terms — bilingual speaker is NOT a simple, additive union of two monolingual speakers.
The existence of indigenized varieties of English and some other European languages makes these accounts look even worse. The question, as Kandiah We cannot, in other words, cut off the nose we must in the final analysis count on. As the considerations that preoccupy most of the contributors to Paikeday — mother tongue, the age at which the acquisition of the language in question began, and the order of acquisition, for example — are rendered problematic by the functionally distributed use of and competence in several languages in multilingual societies, the only way to avoid being sidetracked 38 Rajendra Singh by them is to attempt a characterization grounded squarely in the reality and psycholinguistics of mutilingualism.
Only a definition of this sort can, it seems, preserve the innocent grain of truth in structuralist and generativist conceptions of the native speaker and acknowledge the sort of considerations Kandiah rightly brings to our attention.
Consider the easily understood matter of lexical innovation and morphology, for example. The preoccupation with pedagogy and an almost complete neglect of grammar in the contemporary sense reduce most discussions of lexical innovation in such varieties to journalistic reports on exotica.
It is true that Indian English IEfor example, has words that are peculiarly its own, but all varieties of English have words that are peculiarly their own. This sort of peculiarity is, in other words, nothing to write home about. Although the delight of discovering words that are unknown in other, particularly standard, varieties of English is understandable, the unfortunate conclusions that are drawn from such excursions into exotica ARE unwarranted.
These conclusions seem to me to stem from an absence of attempts to understand the morphology of IE. It is important to look carefully at the subset of morphologically complex words in IE because they result from an interaction Nature, Structure and Status of Indian English 39 between what the material landscape requires and what grammar permits, and here varieties such as IE do not offer much to write home about.
There would be something to write home about if the peculiarity of the lexicon of IE could be attributed to a distinct and peculiar morphology. Such an attribution, however, seems unwarranted.
Like the peculiarity of the lexica of all other varieties of English, the peculiarity of IE seems limited to simplexes. This explanation shows, contra her own suggestion, that the item is not a result of substratum-influenced morphology or of an unlicensed extension of English rules of word-formation. Rather it reflects the fact that the simplex lathi is a word of IE, a fact which is of no particular relevance to the morphology of IE.
Other complex words also suggest that no such substratum influence or illegal extension is involved in the morphology of IE. Lexical differences are, in other words, nothing to write home about. Morphologically complex words in IE are, in other words, fully licensed by word-formation rules of English morphology. Batch-mate exists in IE because class-mate and room-mate exist in all varieties of English and collectorate exists in IE because directorate exists throughout the English speaking world.
The rules that can and do generate room-mate and directorate will also generate batch-mate and collectorate. And if it indeed cannot be sustained, speakers of at least the varieties that can be shown to have their own norms, such as Indian English and Singapore English, must be classified as native speakers of English by virtue of the fact that they are native speakers of their respective varieties — the fact that they are not native speakers of some other variety is irrelevant.
Annual Review of South Asian Languages and Linguistics: 2007
And perhaps so is the fact that what is being transmitted today may well have been coloured yesterday by the mother tongues of those who leant it as a second language before transmitting it as a first language to the next generation This is, of course, consistent with the definition in Singhcited above.
Although I fully recognize the importance of acceptance, recognition, and ownership, the definition itself does not have anything to say directly about them. It does not because I believe, and have argued extensively, that these are clearly politico-economic matters, and are better discussed and negotiated elsewhere.
It is at least mildly ironic that whereas the asocial tradition of linguistic or grammatical inquiry sees and characterizes the speakers of the sorts of varieties mentioned above as native speakers of these varieties, the allegedly socially responsible tradition of sociolinguistics is responsible for creating the expression non-native variety.
The former honours its commitment to treat all viable, rule-governed systems of linguistic communication at par, but the latter seems more than willing to sacrifice the grain of innocence contained in the impulse released more than a century ago. Why some native-speakers of English want to treat some other nativespeakers of English as non-native speakers is an important question the answer to which is to be found in the political-economy of the contemporary world, though socio-linguists are welcome to try to answer it.
Why some English-speaking sociolinguists also want to do that is perhaps an even more important question, at least for theorizing about language and society. This interpretation is, at any rate, not the one that the creators of the expression nonnative variety have in mind.
It is not available to them because the nonnativeness they see in or want to confer on varieties such as Indian English and Singaporean English resides in their view, as they make repeatedly clear, in the Indianness or Singaporeannes of these varieties.
It can be invoked only by those who, like Dasguptabelieve that the non-nativeness of these varieties resides in their Englishness instead. Having referred or perhaps deferred to political economists, I must, to complete the story, now turn to what some of them actually say or might say. As Lele is the only political economist who has written on the subject cf. LeleI shall illustrate that point of view with reference to his paper.
Given that the Kachrus actually go out of their way to show that what political economists prefer to call the narrow linguistic criteria are violated only in such varieties, I would urge you to be careful. In order to make their claim that both form-driven and sociofunctional analyses of such varieties as Indian English are equally inadequate, they are using too broad a brush.
They might also tell you that Dasgupta and I do not quite face the larger issues involved in a proper characterization of English and its place in India. I am afraid that they show their unwillingness to see that challenging scientism taken to be science according to its own evaluation metric is not necessarily subscribing to it. Although I have no difficulty with the critique, which I in fact share, of the superficial nature of the sociolinguistic solution to the problem at hand, I am not sure if I fully understand what is to be gained by dismissing the characterization that the allegedly narrow linguistic criteria in fact provide.
It applies to the differences, not only between those who live in the metropolis as against those living in its international periphery but to the people at the centre and on the periphery within the metropolis itself. Please note that they are talking about the place of English in India and not about Indian English. The difference between Dasguptaand me, apart from the fact that he is a very good story-teller and I am incapable of reading fiction and telling good stories, is that whereas he is interested in retooling sociolinguistics, I have simply been unable to find it anywhere cf.
Singhbut perhaps it is a difference only of style. I withhold the third cheer from political economists because they systematically confuse language with languageinstitutions. Political economy can plant, transplant, or kill speakers or language institutions creating the illusion that it has played havoc with the ar- Nature, Structure and Status of Indian English 43 chitecture of human languages.
As for the sociolinguistics of English in India, I have, unfortunately, no cheers at all because what passes for it is bad linguistics combined with a total disregard for society and political economy. Anything other than an analysis, according to the narrow criteria of lingustics, of linguistic form or an analysis of the political economy of English is, of course, bound to exhibit only horizontal depth, though it will, of course, vary from the very thin veneer of slogans of the sort the Kachruvian enterprise adds on to its analyses to the somewhat more absorbent, though not quite water-tight, buffer provided by some linguists by embedding their linguistically informed investigations in language ecology.
Be that as it may. Given the considerations I have attempted to share with you, I am inclined to conclude that the justification for talking about non-native phenomena of English under either interpretation is very meager indeed, actually non-existent, at least in the context of countries like India.
The only thing to remember is that we are talking about speakers and NOT learners. This is a matter of particular importance for the study of syntactic and morphological errors. It is, after all, the typological difference between Indo-Aryan and Dravidian that is responsible for the fact that whereas the latter has penetrated relatively deeper layers of the grammar of the former, the former has had to content itself with just landing words to the latter.
To get the maximum benefit, we need to contrast NOT English and Marathi or English and Hindi, as is often done in Indian universities, but to contrast Marathi InterEnglish with Hindi Inter-English on the one hand and Malayalam InterEnglish on the other, never forgetting, of course, that this is being done in an increasingly endo-normative context.
Journal of Pragmatics Dasgupta, Probal The Otherness of English: In The Native Speaker: Multilingual Perspectives, Rajendra Singh ed. Not the exception anymore.